Dr. Sergey V. Zagraevsky
To the problem of the origin of the sobriquet of Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky
and the name of Bogolyubovo town
Published in Russian: Заграевский С.В. К
вопросу о происхождении прозвища князя Андрея Боголюбского
и названия города Боголюбова. В кн.: Материалы XVIII международной краеведческой конференции (19
Professor S. V. Zagraevsky offers to the readers the explanation of the origin of the name of the city Bogolyubovo from the nickname of its founder – Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky.
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The origin of the nickname of Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky and the name of the city hierarchy - the question is, at first glance seemingly been solved long ago. Variants of origin only two or Prince got his nickname after the town or city in honor of the Prince, and the first option is clearly recognized in the literature. This unambiguity set the message "the life of the Saint and blessed Prince and the passion-bearer Andrei Bogolyubsky Georgievich": "And for this cause glorious and miraculous mother of God phenomena Grand Prince Andrey adverbs place that Bogolyubova; thence himself of Prosveta Bogolyubsky. Then the castle building and the yard of his princely near new Christmas we blessed virgin Church built, and velmi place it sublease, and Iwase Tu"1. The same position is expressed in closely related to the "Life" of "the Annals of the monastery hierarchy", made in 1760-ies hegumen of this monastery Aristarchus2.
But because "the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky" written in 1701, after almost five and a half centuries after the Foundation of the Bogolyubov, and has a number of internal contradictions4, we have to appreciate his message on the rights is not a historical source, and one of the possible points of view, require such evidence as any other point of view. Therefore, in this study we will consider the issue again with the involvement of the entire set of historical data.
And we start with a review of the message of the early sources which mention the city Bogolyubov.
Novgorod IV chronicle: "Year 6666... and founded the castle-Loving"6.
Russian chronicler: "In the summer 6666... And then there came from Kiev Andrea Yurievich and store Bogolubskyi castle and debris, and set, and placed the Church two and the stone gate, and the house"9.
"Created the same base the Crimea city of stone, the name Bogolyubov, roofing far as Vyshegorod
Ibid: "O Holy and pious Prince Andrew upodobania king Solimano, for the house of the Lord God and the Church of Presevo the Holy mother of God of Christmas we amidst the city Kamen creating Bogoljub and surprise Yu pace all tserkvei... and store this Church in memory of the Crimea"11.
"The prayer of Daniel the exile": "Zane, Lord, who is Loving, and I mount fierce"12.
So, in 1158 Prince Andrei built at the confluence of the Nerl river into the Klyazma river city13 and gave him the name. To the question why the name was exactly the version of the "Vita" ("Prince after the city") is responsible as follows:
"IDY same Grand Duke Andrei predpriyatiem
his way and being in
But there are a number of reasons why we can't accept this version of the "Vita".
First, the alleged stop horses is no more than a legend. It is easy to
show, not even touching on the General questions of admissibility of the use of
descriptions of the wonders of the modern historical science. As follows from
the "Vita", the icon was brought from
Secondly, the appearance of the virgin Mary could explain the origin of the name associated with it, but the name "Bogolyubov" is connected with God (perhaps not with God the Father and God the Son, but in any case it is quite a different cult than the cult of the virgin).
Third, the city Bogolyubov were exclusively
advantageous location and in strategic and economic terms (the intersection of
major trade routes along the Klyazma river and the Nerl), and it was sufficient for him laying there. It was
and extra - symbolic - Foundation made an impression on his contemporaries15:
Bogolyubov was the same distance from
Fourth, even if we abstract from the legendary stop the horses and assume that with the future place of the city hierarchy were associated with any religious experience, then this assumption is similar to that name was simply invented by the Prince or any of his servants (at the level of our knowledge of the XII century almost the same), then there was a creative act that from the historical point of view is accidental.
Fourth, if we accept the version of the creative act, it will be obliged to recognize that the source of inspiration could be not only a religious experience, and generally any random Association16.
The task of this study is to determine the historical implications of the city name and nicknames of the Prince.
For the North-Eastern Russia XII-XV centuries random choice of the name for the new cities are rare. It is difficult and often impossible to establish the motivation only names that appeared previously occurred in X-XI centuries of Russian colonization of Silesia (as Rostov, Suzdal, Murom)17, variants of the same motivation names of new cities was not so much:
- "old Russian": plays the titles of ancient Russian cities (Vladimir, St. George, Galich, Pereslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, Zvenigorod, Przemysl, Mikulin, Starodub and others);
names of rivers (
- the names of the princes of Vladimir Yuriev - in addition to "old Russian" motivation, Yaroslavl, Mstislavl, Dmitrov and others);
- natural features (Hill and several Vyshgorod - in addition to "old Russian"
motivation, Borovsk Berezuevsk,
- economic features (Volokolamsk - in addition to "gidronimicheskaya" motivation, Vyshniy Volochek, Torzhok, Medyn, TESEV, Khotkovo, and others);
- any "special features" (Vereya, Kolomna, Teeth and other);
- just the fortifications, giving the settlement of the status of the city (Gorodets - in addition to "old Russian" motivation, Settlement, Town, Gorodnya, Gorodesk and others).
And if on the subject of this study to take the first version - Prince
after the city", the name of the city hierarchy does not fit in any of the
listed grounds. Any special, unique motif (including "a place loved by
God") has no analogues, and, therefore, can only be considered as a
creative act, i.e. an accident (this is what we discussed above). If we take
the second version (let's call it "the city in honor of the Prince"),
then there are many analogues -
When making a version of "the city in honor of the Duke," a reasonable question arises about the origin of the nickname of Prince Andrew.
But on this question the answer is much simpler than on the question of the origin of the city name when making a version of "the Prince after the city". The vast majority of known princes received their established nicknames in accordance with personal traits or merit, as, for example, Yaroslav Osmomysl, Vsevolod the Big Nest, Mstislav Bozoki, semen Proud, Ivan Red, Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily the Dark and others in order to Eat and examples unflattering nicknames received on the same principles as Svyatopolk the Accursed, Dmitry Shemyaka. 18.
And this number becomes Andrei Bogolyubsky is not given in the "Life" sense "Andrew, who founded the city Bogolyubov and lived in it, and in a much more General - "Andrew, loving God" or "Andrew, loved by God".
Will show why the second interpretation is preferable to the first.
It may seem that in favor of the first - life - interpretation indicates the very wording nicknames Andrey - "Bogolyubskii," sort of meaning or origin from city hierarchy, or reign in it.
But the old Russian tradition nicknames princes never been affiliated with their places of birth, places reign. Sometimes the names of the princes for their discernment was added designated princedoms, but sustainable nicknames they became very rare and late (as Daniel R. Galician, Daniil Alexandrovich Moscow and Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver; the same goal difference from many other Mstislavu pursued, for example, is the honorary nickname Mstislav Vladimirovich - the Great)19. Apparently, the consolidation of the princes of their princedoms as sustainable nicknames prevented frequent changes of these places. And in any case Bogolyubov was not an independent Principality, and Andrew on such a principle would have to be called Vladimir and Suzdal.
And most importantly - do not forget about the "floating" grammar of the old Russian language and remember earlier in our study chronicle reports of Bogolyubovo: they are writing "Bogoljubovsky", "Bogolyubov", "Loving" ("God-Loving"), "Bogolubsky" ("Bogolubovo"), and, for example, in the first Novgorod chronicle - simultaneously two different writing (see above). The God-Loving, Bogolyubsky was called and is still called and originating from this city of the Theotokos.
Consequently, we may assume that the definition of"Bogolyubsky", "Loving" and "Bogolubsky" in Ancient
"And lovers of God the Prince of Domont not sterpe Obidimo be land and home svyatye Trinity from napadenie nasty Germans..."22.
"And so predast his Holy blessed Duchy in the hands of the Lord, the great Christ-loving Prince Michael Yaroslavich"23.
"In the year 6933. Died blessed and religous Grand Prince of all Russia Vasily Dmitrievich twenty-seventh of February Tuesday in three hours of the night"24.
"God-loving Prince Yaroslav loved Berestov and the former, there is the Church of saints Apostolov, and many Popov contained in it"25.
"Oh God-loving Prince, the second Vsevolod. Evil denounced, kind loved living fed. On Milosevic who can sing of thy goodness"28.
"Bogolubsky and merciful Prince Vsevolod..."29.
"Rejoice in a fair assumption of the Holy father Abraham, christalluria and protected by God kings and princes and judges..."30.
"Married and pious christallurii Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Fedor Ivanovich..."31.
"The son of God, the great Prince George Dolgorukiy of Vladimirovich Manamas"32.
And finally, in respect of Prince Andrew:
"O Holy and pious Prince Andrew upodobania king Solimano, for the house of the Lord God and the Church of Presevo the Holy mother of God of Christmas we amidst the city Kamen creating Bogoljub..."33.
From all these quotations that "Loving", "Bogolubsky", "Christian" or
"Christology" (respectively, and "Bogolyubsky")
- it is quite normal honorary titles of
princes in Ancient
We can also assume that both before and after 1158 such titles Andrew was more common than for other princes. Evidence few.
First, the author of "the Tale of the murder of Andrei Bogoliubsky"35 paid exceptional attention to the Christian deeds of the Prince, while not forgetting about its military feats and bringing realistic description of his murder. None of the pre-Mongol princes, even the most favorite chroniclers (as Vladimir Monomakh or Izyaslav Mstislavich), did not merit such a lengthy praise Christian virtues in texts that are not hagiographic.
Second, even usual for that time piety such famous and brave warrior, Andrew had to impress contemporaries.
Thirdly, the same impression could produce and export Prince in 1155 from Vyshgorod icon of the mother.
Fourth, Andrei during his reign paid considerable attention to issues of Church policy (attempts to establish in Suzdal separate from Kyiv Metropolitanate, large-scale ramosmania, the establishment of the feast of the Intercession of the virgin and the like). And whatever the vicissitudes of the relationship Prince with the Patriarch of Constantinople and Metropolitan of Kiev, contemporaries in Suzdal (those who primarily depended nicknamed the Prince and the name of the city) could not be perceived as active Church policy of the exaltation of his Principality, as "godliness".
Fifth, the naming of Prince Andrew exclusively Christian name at the time was a rarity. The vast majority of Russian princes pre-Mongolian time known to us, or only under pagan names (Vsevolod II of Kiev, Svyatoslav, Mstislav Yurievich Besiki and others), or under the Christian name in addition to the Gentile (Yaroslav the Wise, in baptism George; Vladimir Monomakh, baptized as Vassily; Izyaslav Mstislavich, in baptism Panteleimon; and others).
Sixth, military courage and luck Andrew could be the reason that the Prince was named not only "God", but "Bogolubsky" (such as "love of God" could be expressed in the fact that in 1150 Prince survived when in battle beneath him was killed by a horse36).
Seventh, successful aggressive foreign policy of the Prince (the victory
over the Bulgars, the ruin of Kyiv, the subordination
All the given set of considerations about the "godliness" Andrei (and, perhaps, about the "love of God") is an additional argument in favor of the version of the origin of the name of the city hierarchy from the honorary title of Prince - "Loving" or "Bogolubsky".
The question may arise why in such a "godliness" Prince Andrew, he was canonized as late at the beginning of the XVIII century, and only at the local, diocesan level37. In this regard, recall what we said above: the Prince was perceived as "loving" primarily for his Principality, at the elevation of which was forwarded to his Church politics. The relationship is Andrey and Patriarch and Metropolitan of Kiev were very tense.
The question remains, why, if the city was named in honor of Prince Andrew, its not called Andreev, or Andrapolis. The answer to this question is closely connected with real or ostentatious religious virtues Prince: becoming to a Christian modesty, and that the city was not named by the name of the Prince and his "loving" the title is quite natural.
The confirmation of our position can be found in the "
It should be noted that after 1158 had the opposite effect: the presence founded by Prince Andrei of the city hierarchy (especially one in which for many years was the Prince's residence and which is even much later Daniil mentioned as a symbol of happiness and prosperity41) could not contribute to the fact that the honorary title of "Loving", "Bogolubsky" and, accordingly, "Bogolyubsky" turned into a nickname that stuck to the Prince for many centuries and was reflected in his "Life". But we considered the historical evidence suggests that the primary naming the city in honor of the Prince, and not Vice versa.
1. CIT. article: Sirenov A.V. the Life of Andrei Bogolyubsky.
In the book: The Memory Of Andrei Bogolyubsky. Sat.
2. Ibid. With 207-210.
4. Detail some internal
contradictions in the Life"regarding reports
about the construction of the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, discussed in the book: Zagraevsky
SV New study of architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal
5. The first
6. PSRL. T. IV. SPb.,
7. PSRL. T. XXX. C. 68.
A. I. History of the Cathedral of the assumption Cathedral in the lips.
10. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581.
11. Ibid. STB. 581-582.
12. Fishermen B.A. Daniil and Vladimir Chronicles of the end of XII century In
the book: Archaeography Yearbook, 1970),
13. Details on the status of the city hierarchy and its fortifications see: Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 108-122.
14. Sirenov A.V. Decree. back With. 228.
15. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581.
16. For example, accidentally came
in the head to the Prince of the German name "Gottlieb," which
translates as "love for God": this hypothetical situation described
by the author of the historical novel "the Architect of his Majesty"
(attention!. The architect of his Majesty (letters the Abbe
Gottlieb-Johann von Rosenau, describing a trip to
17. Around the names of the most ancient cities of North-Eastern Russia (Rostov, Murom, Suzdal and other) there are lot of legends, fueled by local local lore, but the task of identifying the true motivation of these names makes it almost impossible inability to precisely meet even the basic question is: did these names Slavic and Ugro-Finnish origin.
18. The exception to this General
rule can be called only one thing - the nickname of Vladimir Monomakh, which the mother was the grandson of the
Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachus. In the
literature you can often find the version of the origin of the nickname of
Prince John Berladnika from the Moldovan city of
19. Even if you believe that John Berladnika got his nickname directly from the city of
20. N.M. Karamzin,
for example, was called the Prince: "Andrew Suzdal,
nicknamed Bogolyubsky (
V.I. the Story of Dovmont in the composition of the
Pskov Chronicles (the question of the older version). In the book: A source
study of the literature of ancient
23. Okhotnikov V.I. Lengthy version of the Novel of Mikhail of Tver. In the book: Old Russian literacy: According to the
materials of the Pushkin house. Sat. nauch. Works.
24. Lurie AS Severnobacki chronicle 1472:
Reconstruction of the text and comments. In the book: PLDR. The second half of
the XV century Meters,
25. Kyiv Pechersk Paterikon on drevniy manuscripts. In perelaz.
on sovr. Rus. lang. Mari Viktorova.
28. Memorial inscription on the fresco of the
29. Shakhmatov A.A. Study of Radzivill, or
30. The Life Of Abraham Of
31. The circular letter of Patriarch
Job. In the book: Acts collected in libraries and archives of the Russian
Empire by the archaeographic expedition of the
Imperial Academy of Sciences. So 2. SPb.,
32. About preslava great Prince Vsevolod Georgievich, named in the Holy reshenii Zmitser, Vladimirskom, sea Rosii. In the book: PSRL, volume XXI. Edition 1-that is, half of the 1st. The book Power Royal degrees (1-10 degree faces). SPb., 1908. Electronic publication of the Russian literature Institute (Pushkin House) RAS: http://www.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=10129).
33. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581-582.
34. Read more about the Dating of these temples see Zagraevsky SV New research... S. 140.
35. PSRL. T. II. STB. 581-582.
N.M. history of the Russian state. M., 1991. So 2-
37. Sirenov A.V. Decree. back With. 207.
Sapozhnikov OA, Sapozhnikova
YOU the Dream of Russian unity.
40. PSRL. T. II. STB. 282.
41. Referring to the already quoted us phrase: "Zane, Lord, who is Loving, and I mount fierce" (B.A. Rybakov Decree. back With. 45).
© Sergey Zagraevsky