S. V. Zagraevsky
Published in Russian: Çàãðàåâñêèé Ñ.Â. Íîâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïàìÿòíèêîâ àðõèòåêòóðû Àëåêñàíäðîâñêîé ñëîáîäû. M.: Àëåâ-Â, 2008. ISBN 5-94025-095-5
A possible author of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of 1510s
The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program
and has not yet been edited.
So it can be used only for general introduction.
The Chapter 1, we have repeatedly stated that until the 1990-ies the first ancient stone Church marquee was considered to be the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye (Fig. 35)that have a clear chronicle the date (construction finished in 15321).
The architect of this Church definitely is not installed. S. pod'yapol'skii, devoted to the matter of special investigation2, believed that they had Petroc minor (Peter Fryazin). This conclusion was made on the basis of temporary gap between the probable arrival of the architect in Moscow in 15283 and the beginning of construction of China-town in 15344. Accordingly, the researcher was Dating the Church of the assumption 1529-1532 years5.
Fig. 35. The Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye.
The Chapter 1 we saw that the first stone Church marquee in Russia was Trinity Church in Alexandrov Sloboda (1510-ies). Now the question arises whether we can identify the architect who built Trinity Church, at least with the same probability of a SS pod'yapol'skii identified for the Church of the ascension of authorship petroc minor.
About masters Palace-temple complex 1510-ies in the Settlement Kavelmaher wrote:
- finished in 1508, a Moscow court, Vasily III threw vacant building frames in Sloboda";
- "fortified complex
of the Tsar's court (in the Sloboda - SZ) was built immediately after the end
of the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow by Italian architects Vasily III and was constructed in about five
years in 1508-1509
- finishing his country Palace, Vasily III dismissed the expensive Italian carvers home, and architects stopped the service and with them build up to Moscow and the province"6.
The fact that the authorship of temples Settlement 1510 s belongs to one of the architects of Italian origin, known under the name of Aleviz, a researcher wrote, although this finding is a high probability follows from the following facts:
in 1508, Aleviz Fryazin finished work on the Moscow Grand Palace and the New Aleviz - over Archangel Cathedral7 (the question of the identity of both buildings and architects, we will discuss in paragraph (3);
- in 1513 Alexandrov Sloboda was completed on the Grand Palace and was consecrated the Cathedral of the intercession;
in 1514, the great Prince commanded one of Aleviz erect in Moscow on 11 churches, including St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery and the Church of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo8.
It is unlikely that such a chain of bilateral dates and buildings could be a coincidence. We have already noted that the authorship petroc minor in relation to the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye SS pod'yapol'skii deduced only from the temporary gap between the probable arrival of the architect in Moscow in 1528 and the beginning of construction of China-town in 15349.
But as for the temple of Alexander the settlement, S. pod'yapol'skii objected assumptions about the erection of Italian architects, as, according to the researcher, "in terms of architecture all this slepleno so haphazard and so incompatible with the geometric clarity of the structure, typical of the architecture of the Renaissance, which is absolutely nepena is%810.
From these observations, S. Podyapolsky hard to disagree. But are positions Kavelmahera and S. Podyapolsky mutually exclusive? After all, Kavelmaher wrote that the Trinity Church "awkward naive", is "ridiculous plan, and the construction of the tabernacle "paradoxical"11.
Unfortunately, the rule in the history of architecture of the last quarter of the XX century the theory Rappoport, prescriptive tracking building cooperatives in full composition (from architect to ordinary masons)12, has created a completely wrong stereotype: the architect "supposed" to move the head of his farm from the construction site to the site and personally to go into all the details of construction implementation of your building. Accordingly, any blemishes (the more "naive") design excluded the authorship of highly qualified architect (especially such a level as Aleviz).
But in fact, the architect in no case was not obliged to be constantly present in the project: its main task was to develop the project and receive a churchwarden funds for its implementation13. And in this case, the churchwarden temples Alexandrov Sloboda - Vasily III - was in Moscow and came in her yard in the Settlement only in 151314.
Consequently, Aleviz, if he was the author of monuments Settlement 1510 s still had to reside in the Grand courtyard. No Aleviz in the retinue of Grand Duke could lead to problems with financing the project, and the loss of office of the court architect, for which at all times had to constantly fight.
Thus, Aleviz could either occasionally come in the Alexander suburb during construction, or even the first time to see their temples already constructed, "entered" with Vasily III in Sloboda in 1513. And before that, according to his design work contractors and executors (as we showed in paragraph 4 1 main, mostly local)are able to tolerate any errors - including those that Kavelmaher and S. pod'yapol'skii15.
Consequently, the end of the Aleviz in 1508 work in the Kremlin, the completion of a princely Palace-temple complex in the village in 1513 and the order of Basil III in 1514 one of Aleviz to build 11 churches give us sufficient grounds to believe: the author temples protection, Trinity, assumption and Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrov Sloboda is one of the Italian architects, known under the name of Aleviz.
And, despite a number occurred minor technical flaws, Vasily III was satisfied with the work of the architect - it is proved by the Grand Duke in 1514 commissioned him to build eleven new churches.
The idea of a princely Palace-temple complex in the Settlement fully meets the scale of any of Aleviz - simultaneous construction of very large for that time, the complex of buildings, absolutely unique, different from one another, but United "country" style (as opposed to "capital" style, realized in the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Archangel Cathedral).
And it is not surprising that in the future, along with such remarkable works of Italian architects, as the Kremlin's Dormition and Archangel cathedrals, a model for numerous imitations (often eclipses the original) was the first stone tent-roofed Church of the Trinity16.
Examine the question which of the two architects of Italian origin, known under the name of Aleviz, built temples of Alexandrov Sloboda.
First of all let's see what we know about these wizards. The one, who arrived in Moscow the first, traditionally called Aleviz Fryazino, Aleviz Old or simply Aleviz; arrived in ten years - New Aleviz. But, as we shall soon see, blurred in the naming of the first of Aleviz leads to unwanted contamination, so we'll definitely call him Aleviz Old - unlike the New Aleviz.
About Aleviz Old Chronicles in 1494 year reported the following: "Came the ambassadors of the great Prince of Moscow, Manolo Aggelou Greek Yes Danila Mamyrov that sent them to the Prince of the great masters to Venice and Mediolan; they also privados to Moscow Aleviz wizard wall and ward and Peter pasechnika and other masters"17. How to set up modern Italian researchers, we are talking about Aloisio Yes Kartano (Carcano)18.
With built in Moscow Aleviz Old from 1494 to 1499 years, we do not know, but it looks convincing version Wppagenavi19: he replaced the deceased in 1493 by Pietro Antonio Solari on a post of the head of the Kremlin's fortification.
The following mention about Aleviz Old is because in 1499 "the great Prince ordered ordered zalozhiti your yard, chamber kamenya and kirpichnyi, and under them the cellars and glaciers, on the old courtyard of Blagoveschenie, yea stone wall from the yard of his to Borovitskie strelnici; and the master Aleviz Fryazin hail Mediolama"20. This building was completed in 1508, when Vasily III moved to built a Palace21. What we are talking precisely about Aleviz Old, confirmed by the reference to "hail mediolama" (Milan).
In 1504 in Moscow with the Embassy of Dmitry Ralev and Mitrophan Karacharovo came another group masters22. On the way to Moscow that the Embassy had been detained in the Crimea Khan Mengli-Girey, obliging the masters some time to work on the construction of the Bakhchisaray Palace23. Letting go of ambassadors and artists in Moscow, Khan wrote Ivan III: "And Xu letter filed architect Aleviz, manly-Gireiev word... I am your brother taking a shortcut, Posol Aleviz master, Velma good artist, not like other masters, Velma great master... That's how my honor and my brother's word of honor, that Fryazino Aleviz complain, thou knowest"24.
None of the researchers had no doubt (and won't doubt, and we)that this "Velma great master" and there is the same Aleviz New, which, according to the chronicle data, in 1508 completed the construction of the Archangel Cathedral and the Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist at the Borovitsky gate25. In favor of this interpretation and clarification of "New" (on Aleviz Old), and extremely honored the Grand order (construction of ancestral tombs), and the similarity Italianate portals Bakhchisaray Palace and the Cathedral.
More in the annals of Aleviz "New" is not called. The attempts of a number of Italian researchers to identify the architect with the famous Venetian sculptor and Carver Alvise Lamberti di Montagnana26though has received a wide resonance in modern popular scientific literature, are only unconfirmed (and, as we shall soon see, it is highly doubtful) hypothesis.
In 1508 "the great Prince ordered round the city of Moscow ditch delatite stone and brick repairs and ponds ciniti around the castle Aleviz Fryazino"27. Annals of lead and more specific information about these works, which began in 1507 and completed in 1519 - built walls, towers, dams and ditch along the river Neglinnaya28.
Finally, in 1514, Vasily III ordered to build in Moscow on 11 churches, "and all those churches was the master Aleviz Fryazin"29. This documentary data Aleviz should be exhausted.
Until 1970-ies in the history of architecture dominated following point of view: the Old Aleviz built only Western fortifications of the Kremlin along the Neglinnaya30, a New Aleviz - all the others referred to in the above mentioned Chronicles buildings (the Grand Kremlin Palace and all the temples, including founded in 1514)31. Accordingly, the New Aleviz considered one of the greatest architects of the era, and Aleviz Old was relegated to a secondary role (compared with Solari) fortification.
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, this "extreme" point of view has been questioned SS pod'yapol'skii32 and Vpolicy33. Both researchers have attributed the Grand Kremlin Palace to creativity Aleviz Old and Vygolov VP questioned the authorship of the New Aleviz and Church, founded in 1514.
Arguments S. Podyapolsky and Wppagenavi in favour of the inclusion of the Kremlin Palace to the art of "the wizard of wall and ward Aleviz Old undeniable: Aleviz New in 1499 was not yet in Russia, moreover, in the chronicle report this year reads that the master was from Milan. But valid doubts about these researchers are submitted by Aleviz New churches, the construction of which began in 1514?
VP Vygolov rightly believed that, because the same chronicle under the year 1508 reports that fortification works ("pit delatite stone and brick...") were charged Aleviz Fryazino, and the Cathedral of the Archangel and the Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist built the New Aleviz, a chronicler he spoke about different architects. Therefore, under Aleviz Fryazino meant Aleviz Old
But out of this situation, the researcher has made a highly controversial conclusion that, although from 1508 to 1519 years Old Aleviz built to strengthen the Kremlin, in 1514 he also began the construction of eleven churches. The rationale for this conclusion was that the architect mentioned in the annals under the year 1514, was named Aleviz Fryazino - as well as in reports on the activities of the Old Aleviz under 1494 and 1499 years.
In fact, in a position Wppagenavi we see one more "extreme" point of view, but with the opposite sign: one of the greatest architects of the era, capable of building and fortresses, palaces, and temples (in the same time and on an unprecedented scale), was Aleviz Old and the New Aleviz built in Russia for four years, two temples and after 1508 disappeared.
Apparently, in this case, the truth is in the middle between the "extreme" points of view.
Undoubtedly, researchers have always understood that the wording "Aleviz Fryazin" means nothing more than a statement of the fact that both Aleviz were Italians. And yet in this work Wppagenavi34 (perhaps unnoticed by the investigator) occurred "rebirth" this finding in sustainable nickname of one master - Aleviz Old.
But, of course, New Aleviz was too Aleviz Fryazino, and the adjective "New" was used by the chronicler only in order to stress that the Italian Aleviz who built the Cathedral of the Archangel, arrived in Moscow later Italian Aleviz, who built fortifications on Neglinnaya.
Therefore, we can not rely on the naming of an architect Aleviz Fryazino in determining the author's temples, the construction of which was started in 1514.
Far more important message is seen chronicle 1494 that Aleviz was "master of wall and ward. The chronicler could hardly make it a fundamental clarification accidentally, and such specialization Aleviz Old puts everything in its place.
From 1494 to 1499 years Old Aleviz finishing work to strengthen the Kremlin, which did not have time to complete Solari. In 1499-1508 years he %
Hardly the architect, whose specialization according to the chronicle, and the above facts were "walls and the house, could parallel with these large-scale fortification works to build in the years 1514-1518 11 Moscow churches. Accordingly, it is equally doubtful that in 1508-1513 years Old Aleviz could lead the construction of a princely Palace-temple complex of Alexandrov Sloboda.
A New Aleviz from 1505 to 1508 years, built the Cathedral of the Archangel and the Church of John the Baptist. Logical to assume that the specificity of his work as "the Church Builder" and then remained a priority. Therefore, from 1508 to 1513, he could build temples and the Palace in the village, and from 1514 - 11 churches in Moscow.
The temple building was supposed to be the specialization of the architect in Italy, otherwise he immediately on arrival not trust such crucial building, like Archangel Cathedral (in this regard, the identity of the New Aleviz and sculptor Alvise Lamberti di Montagnana very unlikely). And the experience of building the Palace complexes Aleviz New could get in Bakhchisarai35.
The ability of the architect's creativity in a wide range of architectural forms were confirmed in the XIX-XX centuries, so different from each other, his buildings as Bakhchisaray Palace, the Cathedral of the Archangel and is known for lithographs AA Martynov and im Snegireva the Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist under the Forest and of the Annunciation in the Old Vagankovo. In the 1960-ies to this list were added octagonal Cathedral of St. Peter the Metropolitan of vysokopetrovsky monastery. Now we may add here another four unique temple - protection, Trinity, assumption and Metropolitan Alexei Alexandrov Sloboda.
© Sergey Zagraevsky