To the page Scientific works

To the main page


S. V. Zagraevsky


New researches of architectural monuments

of Alexandrov Sloboda



Published in Russian: .. . M.: -, 2008. ISBN 5-94025-095-5



Chapter 1. The questions of the date of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of XVI c.

Chapter 2. The reconstruction of Alexey Mitropolit Church

Chapter 3. A possible author of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of 1510s

Chapter 4. The origin of hipped roof architecture

Annex. Wolfgang Kawelmacher

Part 1. W.W. Kawelmacher the historian of architecture and restorer

Part 2. W.W. Kawelmachers bibliography

Part 3. A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)

Part 4. W.W. Kawelmachers obituary




Wolfgang Kawelmacher


Part 3.

A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)




The following text was translated from Russian original by the computer program

and has not yet been edited.

So it can be used only for general introduction.



And straight from the pages of the almanac,

From the novelty of it first,

Ran into the coffin steps - without fear,

As in the cellar for a mug of mosellana.

Osip Mandelstam


The story about my father Wolfgang volfgangoviche Kavelmaher I'll start from the beginning of the twentieth century, more precisely, from December 18, 1903, when born, my grandmother, Elena Kavelmaher, nee Kolobashkin.

Her father, Alexander, was a younger son of a merchant of the second Guild, the inheritance was miserable and, of NASM%D

Mother Elena Alexandrovna, my great-grandmother Alexandra was the daughter of Vasily Rudnev, Archimandrite Daniel monastery. As far as I understand, Rudnev was typical priest, the late XIX century, that is like a modern "new Russian" counterparts. Before to take the post Danilovsky Archimandrite, Rudnev was rector of the Church "Trinity" in Shab the%B

Lived Kolobashkin First Meshchansky (prospect Mira) in the apartment of a few rooms. Immediately after the revolution of "condensed", but they are lucky, they lived a wealthy life, "surplus" living space was small, and it moved not strangers, and their former maid.

Alexander kolobashkin died in 1924, even in the twentieth ill chronically malnourished. The hunger of thunder is%

In the mid-twenties, she met my grandfather - Wolfgang Alfredovich Kavelmaherom (1901-1988), a German, son of the Manager distillery Shtrittera (don't know how this plant is called now). My great-grandfather, Alfred F. Kavelmaher, operated the plant, and great-grandmother, Elsa emilevna, ruled a large family: my grandfather were brothers - Frederick, Kurt and Edgar, and sisters - Sigrid and Elsa.

When he died, Alfred F., whether his death is unknown at this time, my father's family was in Vorkuta. Elsa emilevna died (supposedly "safe", that is age) in the late forties. Frederick was in the red Army and disappeared in the early twenties, Kurt worked at the CER and disappeared in thirty-eight. However, it later became known that he died in Kotlas camps. Edgar died of tuberculosis either in prison, or in Solovki about 1930.

Aunt of my father, Sigrid and Elsa, survived until the late seventies. More about them do not know anything, because, according to grandmother Elena Alexandrovna, in 1937 they were "denied" (supposedly written in the NKVD, the relevant application) and his brother Wolfgang, and his family. However, most likely, no "official denial" was not, but just afraid to continue communication.

The fate of the country in the mirror of the same family...

In the twenties Wolfgang Alfredovich "forever" was studied at the Timiryazev Academy. Higher education, he ultimately did not receive. But it was impressive externally - tall, thin, blue-eyed, light-brown hair. Unsurprisingly, they are attracted to the typist from the state Bank and they in 1925 he married.

How they lived - I do not know. I think it was a standard "kharkovskaya" family - grandfather somewhere worked, and Elena Alexandrovna was rare in those days dignity - their own living space.

on 22 January 1933 they had a son. He was named after his father - wolf, that is, Wolfgang volfgangovichem. Who could think, many ordeals were waiting for a man with such "NAME" in the very near future! And grandmother, Elena Kolobashkin, took the German name of her husband and carried her whole life.

In 1933 in Germany came to power of Hitler in 1934 the USSR killed Kirov. Father German, that is "unreliable element" - planted almost immediately. 58 article, "letter MRC" ("counter-revolutionary activities"). They gave him a regular for the 1934 term - five years. "Top ten" then gave rare.

My grandmother was left to work in the state Bank. It was not fired - it was 1934, not 1937, and it was a quiet, non-partisan typist, and Secretary of any head, and employee typing pool. Below nowhere.

From his grandfather, she did not refuse (in the sense of a unilateral divorce), though it is many people advised. However, she was absolutely right: the NKVD, if it was necessary to execute the order for the "wives of enemies of the people, for such divorce no attention is not paid.

In 1935 for the grandmother sounded "second call" - she was arrested. However, just one day. At that time, people chose gold - it was very necessary to the country, as "irresponsible citizens" voluntarily surrender its no hurry.

The story rather anecdotal, but rather terrible. In Alexandra, mother Elena Alexandrovna, there were some oddities, expressed in the details. One such detail was that she was collecting colored glass, put them in a tin can from "Londrina" and hid. Neighbors saw her hiding something, and "knock" in the NKVD.

Granny arrested and taken to jail, and the investigator took her to a small room such as a theatre. She was taken to the stage in the hall were some people and hooted, and the investigator threatened to cut its year-old son (i.e. my father) to pieces if she will not give gold. Just "show" (it is interesting that something like that described Mikhail Bulgakov's novel "Master and Margarita").

Grandma just sobbed and gold, of course, was not issued due to his absence. She was taken to a cell and told to think, and then suddenly released. It turned out that at this time the apartment was searched, Alexandra has shown a box of "Londrina, investigator scary used foul language, and it was all over, like a fairy tale.

And sat Elena in the typing pool, and print until the bell, the third call. This was the beginning of August 1937, when my grandmother received a summons that to her as "the wife of an enemy of the people"used "indefinite administrative exile" in the city of birch. At the same time the family was notified of eviction from the apartment. This meant that we had to take an elderly m%D

However, the choice is still not there. Much later, in 1956, my great-grandmother Alexandra unexpectedly received a certificate of rehabilitation, together with Elena Alexandrovna. Everyone was surprised, but it turned out that great-grandmother also gave "eternal exile, only agenda in 1937 some reason did not get.

Items sent by railway "low speed" (they got more than a year later). Themselves, of course, also were on the train. The stories of the father, his first childhood memories, literally shook him - seen from a car window temples of the Holy Trinity. This may in the future and determined his profession, but this was still far away.

Arriving in birch, grandmother learned that too many exiles, and sent all the ships on the Ob river to the North, in Salekhard (formerly Obdorsk) - a town near the mouth of this river.

Now Salekhard - the centre of the Yamalo-Nenets region, there trains, ships sailing the Northern sea route, take out the forest in the district produce oil. At the same time around Salekhard oil have not yet found, and even felling almost was not - too far was to haul logs: "Sevmorput" have not mastered, the railway has not built, and upstream Ob forest will not fuse. The city would be the Sabbath.

There was a terrible winter of 1937-1938. Grandmother to work will not take - exile, even with a German name. The prisoners died from overwork, but they at least formally had to somehow feed. For exiles turned out the opposite: not found a work - so die from hunger, none of you even care not formally required. But what kind of work could be in Salekhard?

We lived in a hut, and then in the dugout is there at least the temperature was above zero. Four-year-old father became seriously ill from the cold and malnutrition, survived by a miracle - grandmother gave it to death in a crowded, ice hospital and came out herself. At this time Elena with Alexandra somehow earned... sawing wood.

In the result, paradoxically, saved the Church metric grandmother, where it was said that her name Kolobashkin and that she was "baptized into Orthodoxy. Elena Aleksandrovna, the "atypical" document went to the local NKVD and the Prince, seeing that she was not German, and Russian, took her to work as a typist. Securities was the sea, and the ability to print was quite rarely%

Come 1940. Grandpa Wolfgang Alfredovich freed from the camp and got the "eternal exile in Vorkuta. The centre of the Pechora coal basin of the Komi Republic - also, as they say, Sochi, although somewhat closer to Europe than Salekhard. Still, in Vorkuta coal mined, and there exiles easier.

My grandmother, using appeared during the work in the management of the NKVD "useful contacts", was able to change the place of exile from Salekhard to Vorkuta. My grandfather hired (for the eternal Russian currency - vodka), a Nenets reindeer sleds with and in the summer of 1940 moved the family through the Northern Urals. Ironically, this trip was not particularly difficult, in any case, much simpler and dash%

In Vorkuta Kavelmahery settled in the village of Rudnik (emphasis traditionally placed on the first syllable). Actually, to settle was nowhere more - in fact it is not a settlement, and the oldest (and only then) urban area. According to information received in the mid-eighties, survived even the wooden two-storey house, where my father lived. However, home to call Trou%D

But under Stalin, the city was surrounded by all the camps, each mine (acting was about twenty-five) was "ARS" ("individual camp sites), and it turned out that the whole city was one big area. Trains brought in "Vorkutlag" prisoners, and took away the coal.

Elena without special problems has a job as a typist in admchast mine Mine", that is, the system of the NKVD. And EB%D

My grandfather worked as a geologist in Geological control, and all was good. But the war began.

In the autumn of 1941 Wolfgang Alfredovich - German "administratively" (i.e. not only without trial or even the "Special meeting", but without investigation) sent to the logging in the same Komi, just a little further South is around Vorkuta was tundra.

My grandmother just again became "Princess Trubetskaya reluctant" - she, as the wife of a German, in 1941, also was ordered to leave Vorkuta and go to the lumber. And if Wolfgang Alfredovich different iron health and able to survive the logging camp (he died in Moscow in 1988), for Elena Alexandrovna with an eight-year-old son and mother shestidesyatidvuhletney it meant certain death.

My father told me that they had already Packed their things and he burned his toy airplane, because he does not fit in a suitcase. You can imagine the psychological atmosphere for the fine details of an eight-year-old toy is burned.

But the family had saved the same Church metric with which my grandmother, again, went to the head of the local NKVD. The "Orthodox" Kolbaski the

As for Orthodoxy, I deliberately took the quotes - grandmother didn't believe and never in my memory did not go to Church. Probably this could be explained by the fact that her first husband belonged to the Lutheran confessions, the second - to the Jews, and while both were absolute atheist. But great-grandmother Alexandra never went to Church, although he was docher the%

But back to Vorkuta. In the forties and fifties, they lived hard and hungry, but the masses as the Kolyma, not die. However, this "rule" was one exception - the terrible winter of 1941-1942, the prisoners were dying masses. Outside the city were dug several trenches, and there was a sleigh pile of corpses.

My father told me that he once met such a sledge, and the carrier became ill from hunger, and he asked the boy of nine to help bring the horse to the ditches. Father helped. All the corpses, of course, were stripped, and no tags on his feet were dumped in mass graves, and all. None of these bodies was not going to dig and then identify so famous stereo%D

Father said that the driver asked him to help unload these corpses, but he was so tired on the way up the mountain, he refused. There is no fear in respect of dead bodies in the nine-year-old child was no longer, and asked the driver for help was quite in order. We can now plenty to gasp and moan about the harmful effects on the child's psyche mountains bare of frozen bodies, but they were Vorkuta weekdays. The bodies were taken, they are not concealing anything from above.

And not only dead and not only in 1942. For all the forties in the middle of the city and beat prisoners with rifle butts and shot - both in the air and "to kill". Periodically, house searches took place, including the exiles. Local radio (through the speakers) consistently reported, whom many days in the box provided and for what offense. Before the war were often soo the%B

And in the winter of 1941-1942 famine was unforgettable. This was the only year when both father and grandmother were crying from hunger - it was so painful. To maintain the life of the soldering missing, but subjectively these sparing grams of fresh bread and slippery felt only as "rastrelivali" factor.

Having suffered cruelly from hunger woman typist (with sedentary work), little%

Summer in the Vorkuta hunger was not so terrible, because you could walk into the tundra to set snares for grouse than most "beskonvoynyh and hunted. And in subsequent years was not enough food, so that his father since childhood constantly hunted. And eggs collected.

It became easier in 1943, when the Ural earned evacuated industry and it needed coal and PE%D

From the front to Vorkuta sometimes brought jackets for prisoners. Pierced by bullets, covered with blood... "Tutor" father, writer, hero of the war in Spain, "beskonvoynyh prisoner Aleksey Eisner, having such a pea coat with brown spot of blood on her back, told the baby where the bullet hit, the bleeding with a particular hit, and it was all well enough in%D

Eisner, by the way, was excellent "tutor", and the school where he studied father, was good - it taught exiles and prisoners, that is the color of the Russian intelligentsia. Even the Director was very culturally Jewish lady "permanent link" - the paradox of the Stalinist system, which is driven into camps intelligent people. And, despite the abundance of children NKVD-schnick, the atmosphere in the school was such that in ten years my father remembered only one (!) fight between two students, not just so, and because of a girl.

This ultimately bore fruit in terms of education of the father. But the war because of the constant need, and then habit, hunting far in tundra (used to go away for a few days), he became very weak student. He was "raised to his feet only Moses Averbach, second husband of my grandmother, the future has become my "real" grandfather.

Moses Naumovich was born on 30 December the%

My grandfather graduated from certain Academy of Commerce, before the revolution are the elite of merchant standards. Excellent education he received and further, ending at the time the prestigious Institute of national economy named after Plekhanov. By profession he was a mining engineer and in 1933-1934 built the Moscow metro.

At this time the graduates of the student group, which taught%

The first term of his grandfather, despite liter krtd "("counter-revolutionary Trotskyist activities, much worse than just "MRC"), was even a term to three years of exile in Tula. In this city, the grandfather of three years successfully worked in the construction of some office. He married while still in Moscow, and "Tula" times his son Yury was born. But talk to her son Moses Naumovich practice is%

Moses Naumovich sat under investigation for more than two years, came under the infamous resolution "physical pressure", they beat him and broke his finger, which merged the curve (bus unprofessional laid in the chamber). They gave him eight years, and he visited a few lumbering camps Komi ASSR, in 1943 came to Vorkuta. The country needed coal and mining engineer, not %

Grandfather was the chief of ventilation 40th mines and on this post worked for many years. Sounds smooth - "worked", but actually Naumovich Moses, when he expired, "tried" two times. But under the new investigation, and having regular periods, and then another "eternal exile, he remained "beskonvoynyh chief ventilation shaft.

In fairness, we note that "beskonvoynyh prisoner in Vorkuta was set - the whole town was one huge area, around - the green Prosecutor, that is, endless tundra, and running it was still nowhere to go. Even for many prisoner-miners ' movement in the city was relatively free, and for professionals and even more so.

From the commander of ventilation depended on hundreds of lives - and the miners, and staff, and armed guards" (NKVD-schnick also sometimes required to descend into the mine). It is noteworthy that Moses Naumovich was chief of ventilation and after rehabilitation, and in 1961, after the release of his grandfather retired, his successor, was so incompetent that the mine OIE,%

In Stalin's time, loss of life for the NKVD's superiors in itself meant a bit, but emergency on coal mine meant the failure of the plan and the possible demotion, so, apparently, more political "camp" case against Averbakh was only aim tighter grip indispensable specialist.

Their indispensability grandfather did not hesitate to use%

How much he had saved I don't know. Personally, I remember five or six people, and hearsay - a few more. For example, Professor Elicona of G. Leikin (later known informal analysis of the Soviet system, who wrote under the pseudonym Zimin) grandfather put "tabakotrusom" - make sure that the shaft was not carry tobacco. It was the responsibility of the chief ventiljats the%

After the war, Moses Averbach married Elena Aleksandrovna Kavelmaher, my grandmother, who recently separated from Wolfgang Alfredovich. It is, as they say, "positive" Moses Naumovich was very seriously their responsibilities as head of the family.

My father was in school is bad enough, and besides, he was thirteen years old - the so-called "transitional age". My grandfather, despite the natural resistance of the child (who loves who has entered the apartment stepfather and not jealous of his mother?), immediately took up his "discipline". In the end, my father received the excellent education, which could itself PR%D

And grandmother Elena, communicated with Vorkuta "team" and Moses Naumovich, became keenly interested in art and literature. And finally became antistalinistkoy. Prior to that, she, although intuitively Stalin and disliked, but repressions in any case not vinyl, just as millions of others, believed that only with her and some take the%

My father Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin was not fond of since childhood. Wolfgang Volfgangovich and the Komsomol was not the children of exiles there not really called, and he once treated.

In 1950 he graduated from high school. Institutions in the Komi Republic was not, and the question arose: what to do next? Staying in Vorkuta meant waiting landing: all "criminal cases" of his parents were at the local NKVD, and it would not fail to bind to a free extra labor unit. It was necessary to enter higher educational institution, and all agreed that it should be Moscow. Importantly b%D

However, the "family Council" was agreed that in the event of a future arrest Wolfgang Volfgangovich must enter the building or architectural Institute - in camps professional Builder was easier to survive.

As the father has received the passport and escaped from the Komi Republic - this could write a detective novel. Stalin was still alive.

Were raised all communications and Moses Naumovich, and grandmothers, and eventually Wolfgang Volfgangovich Kavelmaher was going to Moscow with a clear response and pure passport, that is nowhere stated that the father and mother of exiles. It was a chance, but remained very fact of life in Vorkuta. Everyone knew what it was. And except for the entrance exams in all institutions was then "the interview" filter to screen out "unreliable".

And here I remembered that Elena works in the camp admchasti, i.e. in the NKVD! And she got to Wolfgang is such a statement, in which it was said that his mother works in this system.

Frank oddities, all prisoners also worked in the NKVD, but this information has saved his father's admission to the Moscow civil engineering Institute

How difficult it was to his father in Moscow at the beginning! He lived first at the high school friend of my grandmother, and family legend has it that he arrived two hours standing at the door, because hesitate to call. And what was the young man who always lived in the Northern camp zones, be in a huge city with the capital rules and mores?

By the way, father all my life (even if they are "permanent residence" in Germany) only ate black bread, because I'm used to it since childhood. But neither my grandmother or grandfather did not eat black bread - as expressed Elena, "ate". These are the psychological paradoxes.

After rehabilitation in 1956 Moses Naumovich and Elena finalized in Vorkuta until retirement, during this time and got herself a two-room apartment in Moscow, Kaluga Zastava. In the capital, they eventually moved only in 1961, but until then, still in Vorkuta, they have a full-employment period and, accordingly, great Northern allowance. They sent my father eno is%8

"Pensioner" life in Moscow or grandfather or grandmother to not have. Sakaliskes in the fight against NKVD, Moses Averbach was well versed legally and it is used. After twenty years in the camps he had nothing and was not afraid and am down to some "people's control Commission", actually moonlighting as a lawyer.

And Moses wrote Naumovich (even with Vorkuta times) great autobiographical novel. The style and the language he had a good, calm and realistic, but, in my opinion, he lacked the ability to stop time. The novel covers the period of Stalinist terror, called "To the glory of the Lord" and amounted to more than nine typewritten pages (grandmother their mnogoHowever, these failures political situation also played a role - and Grossman, and Solzhenitsyn published selectively, then "thaw" ended, and the novel Moses Naumovich was "camp" and anti-Stalinist.

I recently did for his father's Internet site (www.kawelmacher.EN). On this site there is a section dedicated to my grandfather. I laid there too, and scanned my novel. Who wants to finish reading the end...

In parallel with the novel, in the last years of his life in Vorkuta, grandfather wrote some very good stories, published after his death (now in the "restructuring") in the local newspaper. the Sabbath.

A grandmother, a professional typist (this intelligent and educated people) published the historian Roy Medvedev, Professor Ilicone Leikin (Zimin), Shalamova, Vasily Grossman, and many others.

Concluding the story of the father's parents, I would say that Moses Naumovich died in 1982, and Elena - in 1992-m

In 1959, father married Inna Mikhailovna Zagraevsky, my mother. August 20, 1964 they had a son, that is the author of these memoirs. First, our family lived in a Studio apartment at the Lomonosov Prospekt, and in 1970 we moved into a two-bedroom apartment in the high-rise on the Leningradskoe highway, not far from the River Station. Father-in-law and mother-in-law Wolfgang volfgangovicha lived in the same house floor below, and most of the time I spent there: and the father and mother (poet and playwright, and before 1978 - associate Professor of chemistry) left home early in the morning and returned late at night.

Of course, we cannot say that my parents were "not up to the child," but the people were very busy. However, nenadobnost communication had its advantages: I remember very well and all the talk with his father and mother, and all the things they taught me - and in terms of psychological and professional (we speak about literature, painting and history of architecture, as my chemistry m%

Wolfgang Volfgangovich, graduating in 1957, Architectural Institute, settled in the Republican scientific and production restoration workshop", not an architect, and belokamenschikom - perhaps by mladosti years, tempted by high wages. Very soon (within two-three months), he received the fifth level of six, and this brought a lot on the Sabbath.

And he cut the white stone for Chadasha - then just walked the restoration of the resurrection of the Church under the guidance of Galina Vladimirovna Alferov. I remember the episode very complete characterization of Wolfgang Volfgangovicha: Alferov, when a book about the restoration of the temple, listing their "team", called father, an architect, he built a row (!), that in fact he was working. And EB%

And in all copies of the book Alferov, kept at home, had been crossed out "architect Kavelmaher" and signed: "It is not true! I was belokamenschikom. I do not know whether the decency to be exaggerated, but if so, the father is just the case.

And needless to say how annoyed Wolfgang Volfgangovich his Soviet bosses sharp "dissident" statements and defiant disregard all sorts of political information, Union meetings and other Soviet nonsense? No wonder, any more or less prestigious office it quickly "requested". As I understand it, and Alferova the%

After changing a couple of "architectural" jobs and nowhere did not stay long, father entered the post-graduate of the Institute of history of arts degree in literature "and began to prepare a dissertation on the Block.

In principle, there is nothing surprising in such a changing profession there. Even in the early seventies father treated his restoration work as a kind of routine, %

But in the mid-sixties with a thesis turned out quite in the spirit of Wolfgang volfgangovicha: he wrote it entirely, and had only mandatory "Marxist-Leninist" entry. It is when he "broke", and refused protection. Another "stroke to the portrait."

A couple of years after graduation, his father worked as an engineer at the Institute... "Tsentrogiproruda". And only in the late sixties, he finally "caught" for the post of architect at the recently established trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya. The work was to objects throughout the Moscow region, to leave home early in the morning had to come back late at night, but the father was far more attractive than "wiping his pants" in the office.

Trust Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya "can hardly be called a "shabby" - even by Soviet standards, it was fairly large-scale office, leading restoration work on many tens if not hundreds of architectural monuments. Priority is always given to "physical" restoration of monuments (superiors trust liked to remind architects that they - p%

However, despite the "production priorities, for unknown reasons, the trust has never served the Soviet "plan". Accordingly, the staff did not pay premiums. My father had a salary of 160 rubles (about fifteen years later, when his father became a "Department head", the salary has reached two hundred - again, without any premium). And the exceptional decency would not allow him to enter the share of the%

His wife is a Professor of chemistry - received 320 rubles, and my grandparents were quite respectable 120-ruble pension, that is, the father was periodically reproaches for "impecuniousness. And when Inna in 1978 threw chemistry, there was the opposite situation: 180-ruble earnings Wolfgang volfgangovicha dwelt three - father, mother and me.

In short, the first Wolfgang Volfgangovich getting smaller all the family, and then began to receive the most, but still very small. Perhaps it is (of course, in combination with acquired at Vorkuta asceticism) determined its absolute "bessrebrennichestvo. Illustrative example: since then, as the son grew up to be self-sufficient and equal with the father in the envelope%D

What did I eat Wolfgang Volfgangovich - remember it is very easy. Soup of beef bones, black bread and tea with sugar, sometimes in the summer of apples - that's all his food during and sixties, and seventies, and eighties. As him and his very solid build succeeded with this diet is not only "dragging feet", but also have great physical strength, - we can only guess.

And because the question of broth from bones were only in the evenings! In the morning (and dad always get up at six in the morning, as he had no clock, and on the radio at that time, loudly played the anthem) - tea, a piece of bread, and railway station. An hour or two in the train, half an hour on the bus, half an hour on foot - and restorer at the facility. The afternoon is heavy physical work (in terms of the eternal lack of "rabsila" architects-restorers themselves, and punched holes, and excavated foundations, and put a brick), for lunch - a loaf of bread with water (sometimes with "Sivakou-spirits" - the monstrous Soviet port wine), in the evening - the road back, so long that even if something in the afternoon drinking, before the house had been totally about the%8

Wolfgang Volfgangovich even told me that sometimes after the excavations did not want to enter the subway is a dirty, ragged, and yet "fun"... Rescued bright red krestovskoe identity with solid-looking post, "senior architect, Deputy chief of Department, chief of Department".

This is the "career path" father held in trust "Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya for twenty is%

To the drawings of architectural details and reconstruction of temples, which was filled our house, joined by the mountain manuscripts: all weekends father was sitting at home and wrote. Paradoxically, despite the light, "flying" literary style (this is especially noticeable in the epistolary genre), father wrote very seriously. Mountains ' field notes and photographs, one or two Nemours%D

Enormous psychological burden for Wolfgang volfgangovicha were research reports. First, he always felt uncomfortable in public statements (possibly negative role played "Vorkuta" complexes). And secondly, he is "the manufacturer" - clothed scientific ranks and ranks Lev A. David, Boris L. Altshuler and Sergei Sergeevich pod'yapol'skii always made it clear that he is a historian of architecture "of the second grade", and if it suffer at conferences, it is only out of respect for his practical experience restorer. And, apparently, any of its historical and architectural opening is perceived with astonishment, passing in irritation.

And as expected "smooth sharp corners" by Wolfgang volfgangovicha whole life "to cut the truth", and does not have to. As a result of all the architectural historians of his generation friendships (and not quite) relationship with his father formed only with Vsevolod vygolovym.

Of course, in no event it is impossible to forget about that by the father of a very warm attitude Peter D. Baranovsky. For example, my father told me that when he was assigned to Baranovsky young specialist, Peter D. tied him to a chair. Father allegedly often go out for a walk, get some air, and Baranovsky wanted to sit and draw, and one day n%

Of course, tied to the chair, much like the legend (although the eccentricity Peter Dmitrievich well known). But without any legend clear that Baranovsky in due time was actually the father and teacher gave him a lot of "professional secrets".

But in the late 1970s-early 1980s Peter D. was already very old, and, sadly this state, with very few%

Accordingly, almost none of the reports Wolfgang volfgangovicha not gone smoothly, none of his scientific discovery was not made without a "battlefield". Personally, I remember, as the father on the report of Boris and Gleb Cathedral in Staritsa was discussing with a very aggressive and very "drunk" David. The debate immediately switched on the level of mutual personal attacks against the restoration professional%

Of course, father nor David, nor from Altshuller, nor from Podyapolsky, nor from any Ministerial or party bosses were independent. And yet, of course, it was difficult to work as a historian of architecture, constantly breaking the tacit implications of the decision "not to let Kavelmahera in science."

It is not surprising that for the entire life of the father is not "received" no scientific titles and degrees. His only state award was a medal "Veteran of labour", which was issued in 1986 on the proposal of the trust Mosoblstroyrestavratsiya "(father jokingly called this medal "Stanislav third degree").

In the early nineties, my father got a very honorable, but it is absolutely unnecessary certificate "restorer of the highest category - the submission of the same, by the time almost disintegrated, the trust. In "mosoblstroyrestavratsii" father truly loved, despite all his "sharp corners". Max B. Chernyshev, Stanislav Petrovich Orlov, Nikolai Dmitrievich N Is%And what would be the reorganization of the trusts or went, whatever he did, I will not mention his tapeworm name otherwise than with a kind word.

Can't remember greeting my father's colleagues on the trust in connection with its 50 anniversary in 1983. It was called "excerpts from the memoirs Pyatnitskaya citizen, born in Sergiev Posad, now, Zagorsk" (of course, meant Pyatnitskaya Church on Podol).


I'm trembling all over, I fade away like a shadow,

Once I remember how once

To me almost every day



Oh, how ardently he looked at me,

And what tricks dare!

The place wasn't sitting:

Everything under the Hem to get to eat!


And then one day got,

And something interesting found

And in a flash hearing before came Baldin,

With that in me all the time was wrong...


As Baldin, the poor, it survived?

He was indifferent to me!


But our hero immediately cooled,

And at the same moment disappeared without delay,

Disappeared immediately, as soon as spotted

Another object of ardent longing for...


It is for me no sympathy,

Leaving me in a lot of suffering

Such an object in Mozhaisk otiska%D

And he sent all the efforts.


However, as always, from impatience

For a minute not sitting:

Digs himself,and he directs

Heavy rolling stones


And Shvets, and the Reaper, and on the horns of egrets...

And well done... my God, well done!


In "free flight" father went in the late eighties, some time, the number of trust "senior specialist, but is doing very history of architecture. At this time he began a close and fruitful cooperation with museums of Alexandrov Sloboda, Moscow Kremlin, the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, Istria and Kolomna - Museum workers have always been able to appreciate the selfless assistance of researchers themselves and helped them how I could. Of course, there were unfortunate exception, but Alla Sergeevna Petrukhno, Tatiana Panova, Tatiana Timofeeva, Irina Kachalova, Lubov Uspenskaya, and many other executives and employees of Russian museums have become real friends and colleagues father.

In the mid to late nineties "grew up" a new generation of archaeologists, restorers and historians whose name Kavelmahera already been associated with the highest professionalism, broad Outlook, deep study of each question, thoroughness in the statement of the facts and, finally, with integrity, selflessness and dedication.

But, unfortunately, we can not say that the father was surrounded by enthusiastic admirers and attentive students - historians of architecture and was, and remains very small, and all too concerned with their own survival in the "market economy". Two or three random student graduate (father for lack of a degree even had no right to officially called their supervisor), one or two lectures, three or four "younger colleagues," periodic consultations, when the history of architecture seriously native son, - here, perhaps, and all communication Wolfgang volfgangovicha with "the young and unknown tribe is%8

Well, any objection to the position of the father meant by his side a long debate with full dedication - the involvement of all possible arguments, references to the relevant literature, sometimes the pitch, with many personal attacks, accusations of superficiality, dilettantism, negligence and other "sins". Results of controversy could b is%8

To say that until the old man was... Actually the father to old age has not lived (except in our time, a 71 year - old age?), so let's just say that all his life he was physically very strong, incredibly sturdy man. High (about 180 cm), broad-shouldered, with a straight back and excellent posture. Unlikely to Wolfgang volfgangovichu the word "stat is%Certain "scientism" appearance gave his only glasses, beard and typical (alas!) for most of the Soviet and Russian scientists cheap faded clothes. However, thank God, in science poverty is not considered and is not considered a defect.

And, of course, it is impossible not to recall the voice Wolfgang volfgangovicha: soft, enveloping tone literally fascinated listening to his reports (for the sake of justice we shall note that in the controversy, he often changed, and at very high tone). And my father terrific read poems. Perhaps nowhere else have I heard such a professional and intelligent reading.

Female attention so interesting and unusual man, as a father, never was bypassed, but it was, as they say, "exemplary family man", was very fond of his wife and, in 1996, when she moved to Germany, went with her. In the late nineties Wolfgang Volfgangovich some time traveled back and forth, but less and less. In 2001 he last held excavations (in the Settlement in Kolomna), in 2002 arrived in Moscow for about a week, and more in Russia was not.

At this time, Wolfgang Volfgangovich finally became a recognized "the Patriarch of the history of ancient architecture" (as he put it, "survived all the opponents"). What happened, why he stopped coming?

Most likely, the "met" several factors.

First, the "family": the father was afraid to leave her mother alone, especially with dogs - Inna periodically on

Second, the "scientific": Wolfgang Volfgangovich was not the primary archaeological material like a fish out of water, and the possibility of probing and excavations have almost disappeared - architectural monuments in the mass order were transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church.

Third, "family research": the history of architecture professionally engaged son and the father, see the%

Fourth, the "comfort": how would an ascetic life father was, he was thrilled by the beauty of Bavaria, and its life, and its climate and the friendliness and kindness of its citizens. He often recalled Tyutchev words about the "end where the bright azure gaze at the mountain lake", and once again, walking past the cemetery, we recognized each other, what would be the%B

In short, Wolfgang Volfgangovich "ass" in Germany, and began to study his wife's German language and driving. The latter he taught and could not, but traveled on trains and Bavaria and Northern Italy. Paradoxically, these should be the apotheosis of his work as a historian of architecture - confirmed its assumptions about the relationship of the old Russian and Western architecture.

Sometimes, when I was a week or two to come to Germany, we went to see churches of Bavarian and Franconian together, and you should have seen the expression Wolfgang volfgangovicha when he said something like, "Look what the console!"

In Germany, the father got up in the morning, earlier than in Russia - in four-five. He got up and wrote. About the Church of the Transfiguration in the Island, "twerski the% century). And yet - his father back to literary criticism. Many articles about the poetry of my mother, which he wrote for various German publishers, newly awakened his interest in this scientific discipline. However, he repeatedly said (and this is true)that he knows and feels poetry is not worse, and even better than the history of architecture.

At seven or eight in the morning the father for an hour asleep, and when awakened, started the German way of life. Garden, roses, shops, walking dogs, home repairs... he's going home took quite "burgher": Wolfgang Volfgangovich organic does not know how to do anything bad. He or essentially refused to do or have done with full dedication.

"Ruptured" - the term is not scientific, but, apparently, the most applicable to what happened. Even in Vorkuta since having "Northern" quenching, the father is never sick. The only thing that bothered him for several decades - high blood pressure and salt deposition in the joints. In the blessed Bavarian climate and these problems have arisen%D

Wolfgang Volfgangovich Kavelmaher buried at Northern cemetery" ("Nordfriedhof") in Munich.

Part 4. W.W. Kawelmachers obituary


Sergey Zagraevsky



Chapter 1. The questions of the date of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of XVI c.

Chapter 2. The reconstruction of Alexey Mitropolit Church

Chapter 3. A possible author of architectural monuments of Alexandrov Sloboda of 1510s

Chapter 4. The origin of hipped roof architecture

Annex. Wolfgang Kawelmacher

Part 1. W.W. Kawelmacher the historian of architecture and restorer

Part 2. W.W. Kawelmachers bibliography

Part 3. A little about my father (memoirs about W.W. Kawelmacher)

Part 4. W.W. Kawelmachers obituary



To the page Scientific works

To the main page